Architecture Thesis | The Flexible Land On Aquatic Territory | The Float
The Flexible Land On Aquatic Territory | The Float
|Location||Near DHA phase VIII.- Karachi|
|Project Area||29.4 Acres|
|Student||Abeera Shakeel Ghazali|
|University||Comsats Institute of Information and Technology –Islamabad|
|Visualization By||Muhammad Ali|
Floating architecture can be characterized as a working for living/working space that buoys on water with flotation framework, is moored in a fixed area, does exclude a watercraft planned or expected for route, and has a premises benefit framework (power, water/sewage and city gas) served through association by continuous supply/return lines between coasting building and arrive, or makes them bolster benefit offices for itself. Floating architecture on water has been developingas a maintainable option around the coastal regions, and skimming design can be viewed as a standout amongst the most supportable building sorts if appropriate manageable elements would be connected(KO, 2016).
Floating structures are picking up hugeness in the wake of expanding open mindfulness for new advancement of waterfront territories. Restoration of Brownfield’s, especially those of previous lignite mine pits, is a costly endeavor and requires specialized arrangements as well as the age and inclusion of new thoughts. Coasting design is a plausibility for redevelopment after the conclusion of open cast lignite mines. It can give driving forces for territorial improvement rather than unadulterated restoration of a culture scene. In addition, it offers open doors for the sustainable power source water. However, there are a great deal of extra issues because of the extraordinary atmosphere limit conditions including wind waves and compound segments of water in the event of post-mining lakes. There is a requirement for considering and taking care of these issues to maintain a strategic distance from harm in future (Akhtar,2015).
Floating architecture could be a determination in future for current issues in many locale, urban areas and scenes. Such issues can be seen particularly in the need of extra lodging territories and development grounds in a few nations in Europe and Asia because of the developing populace as well as the gradually rising ocean level with regards to the overall environmental change. Another case of issues of current intrigue is the utilization of option wellsprings of energies. The water zones of channels and shut down harbors offer great chances to make new water scenes with current marinas comprising of drifting houses and other coasting design(Manley, 2014).
We are living in time of a notable concern. With devastating circumstances speaking to a hazard to billions of people and gatherings far and wide, it is crucial that new ways and systems against destruction are prepared. The essential goal and objective of this suggestion, is to give whole deal answers for flooding and rising sea levels for shoreline front urban territories (Harvery, 2017). By not simply looking at risks made by rising water levels (natural change) moreover taking into considerations the site possible outcomes, better methodologies for living and other kind of structures. The predominate queries to be countered are:
– The place where will people go when the water rises?
– In what boundary can people continue living in shoreline front urban zones dismissing the perils that submersion stances?
-What will happen to homes, to urban groups—to designing?
-By what technique will people connect with each other?
Strategies must be implemented to make populated, economic and urban infrastructure ‘weather resistant’. Adaptation of strategies should be focused within hot spots, which areas are highly susceptible to the effects of climate change, parts with high lived, public and commercial activity.
On one hand these parts will be damaged by the rising sea and addition in population and lessening in resources will be another jeopardy to the waterfront urban groups (Poore, 2017). Having no space for further outward stretch, these points will require another compositional typology and an infrastructural system that will have the ability to fitting water, control, fuel, stock, and transport from new means.
There is a requirement to put assets into a collection of true methods in those areas that are at present endangered by rising sea levels and lack of resources and over populace. . Therefore, the coastline desertion and a muddled life in coming could be circumvented.
This thesis investigates building potential outcomes fit for managing and surviving climatic changes that will undoubtedly decimate life nearby the drift. The plan might give chances to urban communities to react adaptably to environmental change and urbanization. The primary targets are:
- The objective involves designing a habitat that could serve as a long term solution for continuous sea level rise.
- To think a new human life pattern when sea level rise will force people to abandon the coastal regions.
- Not making separate community but defining new system to make that independent and self-sustainable so that it can with stand on its own.
- Analyzing the potential of the site to find the best solution to the problem.
- Using architecture as a tool to fight against the threat.
The site is located near DHA phase VIII. The site is relatively isolated from the rest of the city as it is a peninsula linked to land from only one side. DHA stage VIII has more than 8000 private units. It is spread over gigantic land, and for the upgrading aim (private houses), it has been divided into various zones. Like A, B, C, D, E, and Phase VIIIextension otherwise called Sahil Road.
SITE SECLECTION CRITERIA:
As water gets warmer, it takes up more space. Each drop of water only expands by a little bit, but when you multiply this expansion over the entire depth of the ocean, it all adds up and causes sea level to rise. Sea level is also rising because melting glaciers and ice sheets are adding more water to the oceans. Pakistan is listed amongst the countries that are vulnerable to rising sea levels. Karachi, a commercial capital of the country, is expected to face the greatest damage. In order to survive do we retreat from the coastline or do we find solutions that are both flexible as well as sustainable (Faheem, 2010).
SEA LEVEL RISE ON SITE:
The analysis is basically done on two levels. One is to understand the existing morphology of whole area.to understand what is the distribution of spaces, resources, activities and connectivity and second is to understand the more focused area which is near to Ammar crescent bay.Flood maps showing SRTM Elevation data were used,analyzed, and interpolated to show which areas are actually lower in elevation in the peninsula.
ACCUMULATIVE SEA LEVEL RISE:
- Though Karachi is at higher elevation than other endangered countries but continuous sea level will affect the coastal city badly in future.
- Selected region is a reclaimed land and is most threat prone site of Pakistan.
- Resides shall be severely affected, in coming future not in terms of property loss but regarding their economy and resources.
- By that time people migrating inland or building sea walls would be of no help because there won’t be much land left for construction.
- There must be a permanent solution instead of temporary techniques.
Karachi has a tolerably mild climate with a by and large high relative humidity that changes from 58% in December (the driest month) to 85% in August (the wettest month). A cool night breeze is an awesome gift for the tenants. The winds in Karachi for the greater part the year, including the storms blow south-west to west. The twist in winter changes from east to north-east keeping up a normal temperature of around 21ºC. The most sizzling months are May and June when the mean highest temperature achieves 35ºC. January is the coolest month of the year. Amid the stormy season in July and August, it stays shady practically consistently with by and large insufficient precipitation. In any case, there are astounding varieties from year to year. The normal yearly precipitation is 256 mm. The normal temperature in Karachi, Pakistan is 25.6°C (78 °F). The scope of normal month to month temperatures is 11 °C. The hottest normal max/high temperature is 33 °C (91 °F) in May and June. The coolest normal min/low temperature is 13 °C (55 °F) in January(Hassan, 2003).
At the site, there is lesser odor (than other REGIONS of the coast) and more beautiful views than at Sea View or Clifton beach. It is mainly because of the apparently cleaner water and view of mangroves towards the North-East and the Bundle Island towards the East.
The site has a built seawall that is in an awful condition and tidal waves thrash into it during monsoons, sloping the seawall towards the sea (which is an obvious sign that the reflected waves have eroded the subsoil beneath the wall foundations. Secondly, the seawalls, at various points are ‘concave’ in shape, with respect to the sea. These points become more vulnerable to structural failure due to tidal forces.
Soil type is very loose, as it is a reclaimed land. Loose soil is 20m (65’) deep, fine soil for 13-15m (40’-50’) deep, then comes the harder soil. In addition to the issues, water table is very high, and fluctuates between 1m to 3m (10’) deep.
THE WIND LOADS
The wind loads of a super cyclone is about 120 ~ 150 mph, which is bearable in case of materials like reinforced concrete and steel, though timber and bamboo construction succumbs easily to the wrath of the winds.
Hurricane winds can becategorized in terms of the pressure they exert. The pressure varies with the square of the velocity of the wind. Hence, doubling the velocity of the wind corresponds to increasing the pressure by a factor of 4. A 50 mph (miles per hour) wind exerts a pressure of about 10 psf (pounds per square foot) on a flat surface. A 100 mph wind would exert a pressure of 40 psf, and a 200 mph wind would exert a pressure of 160 psf.
Basically, the outer form of a building has to deflect the forces of wind and water very effectively. If in case of a disaster, a structure of a building is put to test, it must act as one! This is very possible if the shape of a building is regular and not complicated with numerous projections, etc. The plan length and width should not be of awkward proportions like 1:3. This might make a building vulnerable to uneven settlement if the subsoil gets eroded. Secondly, it is advisable to place the shorter dimension of a building towards the direction of the sea surge.
A domed form gives us the best advantage as it offers least flat surface for the wind to push on (technically, its drag coefficient is lesser).
Analyzing a building by section, we see that more ‘pressure pockets’ or gaps are created on the top, and leeward side of a flat cuboid than of a domed or vaulted surface (the above section can be of a vault or a dome). Though a domed building or house performs best in such weather conditions, they waste a lot of space in all contexts. Wall space, floor space, clear heights, etc. are reduced if we were to design a building in a dome form. Secondly, there is no usable roof space for any activity.
Projections to the exterior are components that succumb to uplift forces of the wind. If made excessively large, it may break and harm the rest of the structure too. As the diagrams show, if the wind enters inside the building, the uplift is applied on the ceiling. So entry of air inside has to be minimized to avoid this problem.On the other hand, cyclones are characterized with heavy rainfall. In this case, a balanced approach needs to be used that projections must be just enough to keep out the rain and reduce uplift.
The modules have been designed in hexagon shape, as they stack and combine easily without wasting space. The modules have been designed and placed in such a way that weight is countered from every side because in order to make the hose float key point to be noted is the weight of the structure must be directly proportional to the buoyancy of the total covered area on the water.
The communal, commercial and allied facilities are placed at the center so that they will be easily accessible for the residents from all sides and also to maintain the weight.
Power generation plants, filtration plants, helipad shall also be provided in the central region.The voids in between are left deliberately for the access of boats and with stand the tidal waves.
Driving another connection amongst design and nature, Region emphasizes the simultaneous production of architectural objects and the earth encompassing them. The architecture here scans and modifies atmospheres, arboreal zones, geothermal trade, attractive fields, natural surroundings and toxicities – empowering new and extreme geological examples, impacts and sensations inside structural and urban experience. Eventually, it proposes a part for design as a methodology of ecological thinking versus one of convenience or adjustments with an outer normal world.
It bears design an entirely new space in which to work. It is at no time in the future confined by site, biology or even structure. The place it possesses supports the transformative capability of design. It recasts engineering with a dynamic relationship to its outside condition, in which it interfaces with climatic conditions paying little respect to whether they are “normal” and kind or possibly dirtying. Design is no longer an isolating and controlling specialist, close its inhabitants from its environment. It is arranged for to follow up on the “characteristic” as much as the “edified” (Giessen).
So, here the undermining sea rise is taken, no longer as an immediate risk yet an open door for development. What’s more, to utilize this circumstance make another sort of urban-ism. Rather than moving internal and aggravating the entire urban texture, we ought to utilize the water as another canvas for building. Which will be reliant on the current city in the beginning however continuously it will begin to wind up plainly self-feasible. Yet, the thing is, we can’t think this thought absolutely reliant on the current city which will endure with developing populace and lessening in assets. So there we will have to give new lord of frameworks to make life conceivable on new living space.
With a specific end goal to make this approach work, we should first comprehend nature’s standards and the flow of the coastal processes.
For making a whole community on water first thing is to define systems. In order to make the design work, it has been broke down into modules because base must be design flexible enough to withstand the waves and stable enough to support hundreds of buildings and thousands of people. The violent ocean turbulent wave attack from all sides, putting non survivable stress on structure.so the challenge is to cope with tons of energy because water not only moves up and down it actually rotates. So if we take e ship like base having support in its extreme ends and water for twist it, then there will be extra stress on center and the base shall break down.
Hence we do not need one big giant platform, instead there should beinterlocked platforms joined together to form a massive super structure. Big enough to stay stable and flexible enough to roll the water. So if big wave come through,that will allow the whole structure to move up and over the wave. Using this technique, a whole community which will have the ability to detach from each other in case of emergency and innormal condition it will stay together to form a whole communist and eventually a whole city can be built. Having its own energy resources, food production and transportation system. But this community can’t act individually. The new ways of producing food and energy will connect it with the existing cityas at thebeginning it will be dependent on existing city for its needs.